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剑桥雅思6Test2阅读Passage3原文翻译 Numeration 计数的历史 剑桥雅思6阅读第二套题目第 […]

“老烤鸭雅思阅读真题还原”

剑桥雅思6Test2阅读Passage3原文翻译 Numeration 计数的历史

剑桥雅思6阅读第二套题目第三篇文章的主题为计数的历史。文章分为七段,第一段先解释计数的重要意义,然后按照时间顺序描述人类在计数方面的发展。因为主题有些抽象,所以读起来可能不那么好懂。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读中需要大家掌握的重点词汇以及具体题目的答案解析

雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思6 test 2 passage 3 计数发展史

剑桥雅思6Test2阅读Passage3答案解析 Numeration 人类计数系统发展史

剑桥雅思6 Test 2 Passage 3阅读答案解析

第1自然段

One of the first great intellectual feats of a young child is learning how to talk, closely followed by learning how to count. From earliest childhood we are so bound up with our system of numeration that it is a feat of imagination to consider the problems faced by early humans who had not yet developed this facility. Careful consideration of our system of numeration leads to the conviction that, rather than being a facility that comes naturally to a person, it is one of the great and remarkable achievements of the human race.

幼儿首先展现出来的伟大的智力特长之一是学习如何说话,紧接着是学习如何计数。从童年早期开始,我们就与我们的计数体系紧密相连,以至于思考尚未开发出这种工具的早期人类所面临的问题需要极大的想象力。认真考虑我们的计数体系会导致这样一种信念,那就是它不是人类固有的便利,而是人类伟大而卓越的成就之一。

第2自然段

It is impossible to learn the sequence of events that led to our developing the concept of number. Even the earliest of tribes had a system of numeration that, if not advanced, was sufficient for the tasks that they had to perform. Our ancestors had little use for actual numbers; instead their considerations would have been more of the kind Is this enough? rather than How many? when they were engaged in food gathering, for example. However, when early humans first began to reflect on the nature of things around them, they discovered that they needed an idea of number simply to keep their thoughts in order. As they began to settle, grow plants and herd animals, the need for a sophisticated number system became paramount. It will never be known how and when this numeration ability developed, but it is certain that numeration was well developed by the time humans had formed even semi-permanent settlements.

要了解引发我们发展数字概念的事件的顺序是不可能的。即使是最文章来自老烤鸭雅思早的部落,也都有其计数系统,即使不先进,也足以完成他们必须执行的任务。我们的祖先很少使用实际数字。例如,当他们进行食物收集时,他们会更多的考虑这是否足够,而不是多少。但是,当早期人类开始反思周围事物的本质时,他们发现他们需要数字的概念以保持思想的井然有序。随着他们开始定居,种植植物和放养牲畜,对复杂数字系统的需求变得至关重要。这种计数能力的发展方式和时间都是未知的。但是可以肯定的是,甚至在人类形成半永久性定居点的之前,计数就已经很好地发展了。

第3自然段

Evidence of early stages of arithmetic and numeration can be readily found. The indigenous peoples of Tasmania were only able to count one, two, many; those of South Africa counted one, two, two and one, two twos, two twos and one, and so on. But in real situations the number and words are often accompanied by gestures to help resolve any confusion. For example, when using the one, two, many type of system, the word many would mean, Look at my hands and see how many fingers I am showing you. This basic approach is limited in the range of numbers that it can express, but this range will generally suffice when dealing with the simpler aspects of human existence.

很容易找到算术和计数早期阶段的证据。塔斯马尼亚州的土著人民只会数一,二,多;而南非的土著人民则可以数一,二,二和一,两个二,两个二和一,依此类推。但是在实际情况下,数字和词汇经常伴随着手势,以帮助解决困惑。例如,当使用“一,二,多”系统时,“多”这个词汇意味着,看我的手,看看我给你看了多少根手指。这种基本方法可以表达的数字范围有限。但是在处理人类存在的简单问题时,它通常就够用了。

第4自然段

The lack of ability of some cultures to deal with large numbers is not really surprising. European languages, when traced back to their earlier version, are very poor in number words and expressions. The ancient Gothic word for ten, tachund, is used to express the number 100 as tachund tachund. By the seventh century, the word teon had become interchangeable with the tachund or hund of the Anglo-Saxon language, and so 100 was denoted as hund teontig, or ten times ten. The average person in the seventh century in Europe was not as familiar with numbers as we are today. In fact, to qualify as a witness in a court of law a man had to be able to count to nine!

某些文化缺乏处理大数字的能力并不令人感到意外。当将欧洲语言追溯到早期版本时,其数字方面的单词和表达就很差。古代的哥特语中用来表达十的单词是tachund,而数字100则被表达为tachund tachund。到了七世纪,teon一词已与盎格鲁-撒克逊语言中的tachund或hund互换使用,因此100被表示为hund teontig,或十乘十。欧洲七世纪的普通人对数字的熟悉程度不如今天。实际上,要想在法庭上取得证人资格,一个人必须能够数到九才行!

第5自然段

Perhaps the most fundamental step in developing a sense of number is not the ability to count, but rather to see that a number is really an abstract idea instead of a simple attachment to a group of particular objects. It must have been within the grasp of the earliest humans to conceive that four birds are distinct from two birds; however, it is not an elementary step to associate the number 4, as connected with four birds, to the number 4, as connected with four rocks. Associating a number as one of the qualities of a specific object is a great hindrance to the development of a true number sense. When the number 4 can be registered in the mind as a specific word, independent of the object being referenced, the individual is ready to take the first step toward the development of a notational system for numbers and, from there, to arithmetic.

数字意识形成的最基本步骤也许不是计数能力,而是要意识到数字实际上是一种抽象概念,而不是一组特定物品的附属物。最早的人类应该知道四只鸟与两只鸟有区别。但是,将与四个鸟相连的数字4和与四个岩石相连的数字4关联起来并不是一个简单的步骤。将数字作为特定物品的一种特质极大地阻碍了真正数字观念的发展。当数字4可以在大脑中被记忆为一个特定的单词,而与被引用的物品无关时,那么这个人就可以朝着数字符号系统的发展迈出第一步,并从那里走向算术。

第6自然段

Traces of the very first stages in the development of numeration can be seen in several living languages today. The numeration system of the Tsimshian language in British Columbia contains seven distinct sets of words for numbers according to the class of the item being counted: for counting flat objects and animals, for round objects and time, for people, for long objects and trees, for canoes, for measures, and for counting when no particular object is being numerated. It seems that the last is a later development while the first six groups show the relics of an older system. This diversity of number names can also be found in some widely used languages such as Japanese.今天,在几种活着的语言中可以看到计算发展初期的痕迹。不列颠哥伦比亚省的Tsimshian语言计数系统包含七组不同的数字单词,这些数字根据要计数的物品的类别不同而不同:扁平物体和动物,圆形物体和时间,人,长物体和树木,独木舟,度量以及在没有对特定对象进行编号时进行计数。最后一种似乎是后来的发展,而前六个组则展现了古老体统的残留。数字名称的这种多样性还可以在某些广泛使用的语言(例如日语)中找到。

第7自然段

Intermixed with the development of a number sense is the development of an ability to count. Counting is not directly related to the formation of a number concept because it is possible to count by matching the items being counted against a group of pebbles, grains of corn, or the counter’s fingers. These aids would have been indispensable to very early people who would have found the process impossible without some form of mechanical aid. Such aids, while different, are still used even by the most educated in today’s society due to their convenience. All counting ultimately involves reference to something other than the things being counted. At first it may have been grains or pebbles but now it is a memorised sequence of words that happen to be the names of the numbers.

计数能力的发展与数字概念的发展混杂在一起。计数与数字概念的形成没有直接关系,因为可以通过将要计数的物品与一组小卵石,玉米粒或数数人的手指相匹配来进行计数。这些辅助工具对于非常早期的人们来说是必不可少的,他们会发现,如果没有某种形式的机械辅助,该过程是不可能的。尽管这些辅助工具有所不同,但由于它们的方便性,即使是当今社会上受过良好教育的人也仍然在使用。所有的计数最终都涉及到对被计数物品以外的事物的引用。起初它可能是谷物或小卵石,但是现在它是一个对应数字名称的,可供记忆的单词序列。

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剑桥雅思6Test2阅读Passage3原文翻译 Numeration:等您坐沙发呢!

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