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剑桥雅思6Test3阅读Passage3原文翻译 The Search for the Anti-aging […]

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剑桥雅思6Test3阅读Passage3原文翻译 The Search for the Anti-aging Pill 抗衰老药物的寻找

剑桥雅思6阅读第三套题目第三篇文章的主题为抗衰老药物的寻找。文章分为8段,分别介绍了限制热量摄入的背景和好处,动物实验的结果,目前药物的作用原理和相关缺陷等内容。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读中需要大家掌握的重点词汇以及具体题目的答案解析

雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思6 test 3 passage 3 抗衰老药物

剑桥雅思6Test3阅读Passage3答案解析 The Search for the Anti-aging Pill 抗衰老药物的搜寻

剑桥雅思6 Test 3 Passage 3阅读原文翻译

第1自然段

As researchers on aging noted recently, no treatment on the market today has been proved to slow human aging – the build-up of molecular and cellular damage that increases vulnerability to infirmity as we grow older. But one intervention, consumption of a low-calorie* yet nutritionally balanced diet, works incredibly well in a broad range of animals, increasing longevity and prolonging good health. Those findings suggest that caloric restriction could delay aging and increase longevity in humans, too.

正如衰老研究人员最近指出的那样,当今市场上尚无任何疗法能减缓人类衰老-随着年龄的增长,分子和细胞损伤的累积会让人变得体弱多病。但是,一项干预措施-食用低热量且营养均衡的饮食-在多种动物中都表现得非常好,延长了寿命并改善了健康状况。这些发现表明热量限制可能也可以延缓衰老并延长人类的寿命。

第2自然段

Unfortunately, for maximum benefit, people would probably have to reduce their caloric intake by roughly thirty per cent, equivalent to dropping from 2,500 calories a day to 1,750. Few mortals could stick to that harsh a regimen, especially for years on end. But what if someone could create a pill that mimicked the physiological effects of eating less without actually forcing people to eat less? Could such a ‘caloric-restriction mimetic’, as we call it, enable people to stay healthy longer, postponing age-related disorders (such as diabetes, arteriosclerosis, heart disease and cancer) until very late in life? Scientists first posed this question in the mid-1990s, after researchers came upon a chemical agent that in rodents seemed to reproduce many of caloric restriction’s benefits. No compound that would safely achieve the same feat in people has been found yet, but the search has been informative and has fanned hope that caloric-restriction (CR)mimetics can indeed be developed eventually.

不幸的是,为了获得最大的收益,人们可能不得不将其热量摄入减少约30%,相当于从每文章来自老烤鸭雅思天2500卡路里减少到1,750卡路里。很少有凡人可以坚持这种苛刻的治疗方法,尤其是连续数年。但是,如果有人可以制造出一种药。这种药可以模仿减少饮食的生理效果,但又不用迫使人们真的少吃东西又如何呢?这种我们称之为“热量限制模拟物”东西能否使人们保持更长的健康,将与年龄有关的疾病(例如糖尿病,动脉硬化,心脏病和癌症)推迟到很晚才出现呢?研究人员在啮齿动物中发现了一种化学物质,它似乎能够产生限制热量的众多好处。随后,科学家在20世纪90年代中期首次提出了这个问题。虽然尚未找到可以安全地在人类中实现相同作用的化合物,但是这种搜寻提供了有用信息,并激发了人们最终开发出热量限制(CR)模拟物的希望。

热量限制的好处

第3自然段

The hunt for CR mimetics grew out of a desire to better understand caloric restriction’s many effects on the body. Scientists first recognized the value of the practice more than 60 years ago, when they found that rats fed a low-calorie diet lived longer on average than free-feeding rats and also had a reduced incidence of conditions that become increasingly common in old age. What is more, some of the treated animals survived longer than the oldest-living animals in the control group, which means that the maximum lifespan (the oldest attainable age), not merely the normal lifespan, increased. Various interventions, such as infection-fighting drugs, can increase a population’s average survival time, but only approaches that slow the body’s rate of aging will increase the maximum lifespan.

寻找CR模拟物的原因是希望更好地了解热量限制对身体的多种影响。六十多年前,当科学家发现喂养低热量饮食的老鼠的平均寿命要比自由喂养的老鼠更长,并且它们老年阶段出现的健康状况明显减少时,科学家第一次意识到了这种做法的价值。而且,某些动物的存活时间比对照组中最老的动物更长,这意味着最大寿命(可达到的最大年龄)而不仅仅是正常寿命增加了。诸如抗感染药物之类的各种干预措施可以增加人口的平均生存时间,但是只有减慢人体衰老速度的方法才会增加最大寿命。

第4自然段

The rat findings have been replicated many times and extended to creatures ranging from yeast to fruit flies, worms, fish, spiders, mice and hamsters. Until fairly recently, the studies were limited to short-lived creatures genetically distant from humans. But caloric-restriction projects underway in two species more closely related to humans – rhesus and squirrel monkeys – have made scientists optimistic that CR mimetics could help people.

老鼠身上的发现已被重复了很多次,并扩展到从酵母菌到果蝇,蠕虫,鱼,蜘蛛,小老鼠和仓鼠之类的生物。直到最近,研究还局限于与人类遗传基因距离较远的短寿命生物。但是,在与人类关系更加紧密的两个物种(恒河猴和松鼠猴)身上正在进行热量限制项目使科学家们对CR模拟物可以帮助人们感到乐观。

第5自然段

The monkey projects demonstrate that, compared with control animals that eat normally, caloric-restricted monkeys have lower body temperatures and levels of the pancreatic hormone insulin, and they retain more youthful levels of certain hormones that tend to fall with age.

猴子项目表明,与正常饮食的对照动物相比,受热量限制的猴子的体温和胰岛素水平较低,并且它们更多地保留了某些会随着年龄增长而下降的荷尔蒙水平。

第6自然段

The caloric-restricted animals also look better on indicators of risk for age-related diseases. For example, they have lower blood pressure and triglyceride levels (signifying a decreased likelihood of heart disease), and they have more normal blood glucose levels (pointing to a reduced risk for diabetes, which is marked by unusually high blood glucose levels). Further, it has recently been shown that rhesus monkeys kept on caloric-restricted diets for an extended time (nearly 15 years) have less chronic disease. They and the other monkeys must be followed still longer, however, to know whether low-calorie intake can increase both average and maximum lifespans in monkeys. Unlike the multitude of elixirs being touted as the latest anti-aging cure, CR mimetics would alter fundamental processes that underlie aging. We aim to develop compounds that fool cells into activating maintenance and repair.

受热量限制的动物在与年龄有关的疾病风险指标上也表现更好。例如,它们具有较低的血压和甘油三酸酯水平(表明心脏病的可能性降低),并且它们的血糖水平更加正常(表明患糖尿病的风险降低,其特征在于异常高的血糖水平)。此外,最近已显示,长期限制热量摄入(近15年)的恒河猴的慢性病较少。他们和其他猴子必须被研究更长的时间,才能知道低热量摄入是否可以增加猴子的平均寿命和最大寿命。与众多被誉为最新抗衰老疗法的灵丹妙药不同,CR模拟剂将改变形成衰老的本质过程。我们的目标是开发出可以哄骗细胞,并激活其维护和修复作用的化合物。

热量限制模拟物原型如何起作用

第7自然段

The best-studied candidate for a caloric-restriction mimetic, 2DG (2-deoxy-D-glucose), works by interfering with the way cells process glucose. It has proved toxic at some doses in animals and so cannot be used in humans. But it has demonstrated that chemicals can replicate the effects of caloric restriction; the trick is finding the right one.

研究中最好的热量限制模拟物2DG(2-deoxy-D-glucose)通过干扰细胞处理葡萄糖的方式起作用。它已被证明对动物有一定的毒性,因此不能用于人类。但它证明,化学物质可以复制热量限制的作用。诀窍是找到合适的那一种。

第8自然段

Cells use the glucose from food to generate ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the molecule that powers many activities in the body. By limiting food intake, caloric restriction minimizes the amount of glucose entering cells and decreases ATP generation. When 2DG is administered to animals that eat normally, glucose reaches cells in abundance but the drug prevents most of it from being processed and thus reduces ATP synthesis. Researchers have proposed several explanations for why interruption of glucose processing and ATP production might retard aging. One possibility relates to the ATP-making machinery’s emission of free radicals, which are thought to contribute to aging and to such age-related diseases as cancer by damaging cells. Reduced operation of the machinery should limit their production and thereby constrain the damage. Another hypothesis suggests that decreased processing of glucose could indicate to cells that food is scarce (even if it isn’t) and induce them to shift into an anti-aging mode that emphasizes preservation of the organism over such ‘luxuries’ as growth and reproduction.

细胞利用食物中的葡萄糖产生ATP(三磷酸腺苷),该分子为体内的许多活动提供动力。通过限制食物的摄入,热量限制可最大程度地减少进入细胞的葡萄糖量并减少ATP的产生。当将2DG用于正常饮食的动物时,大量的葡萄糖仍然会到达细胞,但是该药物阻止了其中大部分被加工,从而降低了ATP的合成。研究人员针对为何中断葡萄糖加工和ATP产生会延缓衰老提出了几种解释。一种可能性与ATP产生机制释放的自由基有关。自由基被认为会通过破坏细胞而导致衰老,并导致诸如癌症等与年龄有关的疾病。减少这一机制的运转应该可以限制自由基的产生,从而控制损坏。另一种假设认为,葡萄糖加工的减少可能会向细胞表明食物缺乏(即使不是),并导致它们转变为抗衰老模式。该模式强调生长和繁殖等“奢侈品”器官的保存。

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