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剑桥雅思6Test3阅读Passage2原文翻译 Motivating Employees under Adv […]

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剑桥雅思6Test3阅读Passage2原文翻译 Motivating Employees under Adverse Conditions 在逆境中激励员工

剑桥雅思6阅读第三套题目第二篇文章的主题为如何在逆境中激励员工。文中分为8段。前两段用来描述在逆境中激励员工所面临的挑战,后六段给出六种具体的激励方案。文章结构为典型的提出问题-解决问题类型。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思6 test 3 passage 2 激励员工

剑桥雅思6Test3阅读Passage2答案解析 Motivating Employees under Adverse Conditions 在不利情况下激励员工

剑桥雅思6 Test 3 Passage 2阅读原文翻译

挑战

It is a great deal easier to motivate employees in a growing organisation than a declining one. When organisations are expanding and adding personnel, promotional opportunities, pay rises, and the excitement of being associated with a dynamic organisation create feelings of optimism. Management is able to use the growth to entice and encourage employees. When an organisation is shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. Unfortunately, they are the ones the organisation can least afford to lose – those with the highest skills and experience. The minor employees remain because their job options are limited.

在成长中的组织中激励员工要比在衰落中的组织这么做容易得多。当组织不断壮大并增加人员时,晋升机会,加薪以及与充满活力的组织相关联的兴奋会产生乐观的感觉。管理层能够利用这一增长来吸引和鼓励员工。当组织机构萎缩时,最优秀,流动性最好的员工往往会自愿离开。不幸的是,他们是组织最无法承受的损失-具有最好技能和经验的人。次要的雇员留下是因为他们的工作选择有限。

Morale also suffers during decline. People fear they may be the next to be made redundant. Productivity often suffers, as employees spend their time sharing rumours and providing one another with moral support rather than focusing on their jobs. For those whose jobs are secure, pay increases are rarely possible. Pay cuts, unheard of during times of growth, may even be imposed. The challenge to management is how to motivate employees under such retrenchment conditions. The ways of meeting this challenge can be broadly divided into six Key Points, which are outlined below.

士气在衰落期间也遭受苦难。人们担心他们可能会成为下一个多余的人。由于员文章来自老烤鸭雅思工将大部分时间用于传播谣言并相互提供道德支持,而不是专注于工作,因此生产力通常会受到影响。对于那些工作稳定的人来说,加薪几乎不可能。甚至还可能实行降薪,这在增长时期闻所未闻。管理人员面临的挑战是如何在这种紧缩的条件下激励员工。应对挑战的方法大致可分为六个关键点,概述如下。

要点一

There is an abundance of evidence to support the motivational benefits that result from carefully matching people to jobs. For example, if the job is running a small business or an autonomous unit within a larger business, high achievers should be sought. However, if the job to be filled is a managerial post in a large bureaucratic organisation, a candidate who has a high need for power and a low need for affiliation should be selected. Accordingly, high achievers should not be put into jobs that are inconsistent with their needs. High achievers will do best when the job provides moderately challenging goals and where there is independence and feedback. However, it should be remembered that not everybody is motivated by jobs that are high in independence, variety and responsibility.

有充分的证据支持将人们精心匹配工作所产生的动机收益。例如,如果工作是经营小型企业或大型企业中的自主部门,则应寻求高成就者。但是,如果要担任的职务是大型官僚组织中的管理职位,则应选择对权力有较高要求而对隶属关系需求不大的候选人。因此,高成就者不应从事与其需求不一致的工作。当工作提供中等难度的目标且有独立性和反馈时,高成就者将会做到最好。但是,应该记住,并不是每个人都会受到独立性,多样性和责任感高的工作的激励。

要点二

The literature on goal-setting theory suggests that managers should ensure that all employees have specific goals and receive comments on how well they are doing in those goals. For those with high achievement needs, typically a minority in any organisation, the existence of external goals is less important because high achievers are already internally motivated. The next factor to be determined is whether the goals should be assigned by a manager or collectively set in conjunction with the employees. The answer to that depends on perceptions of goal acceptance and the organisation’s culture. If resistance to goals is expected, the use of participation in goal-setting should increase acceptance. If participation is inconsistent with the culture, however, goals should be assigned. If participation and the culture are incongruous, employees are likely to perceive the participation process as manipulative and be negatively affected by it.

关于目标设定理论的文献表明,管理者应确保所有员工都有特定的目标,并接受有关他们在这些目标中 表现的评价。对于那些具有较高成就要求的人(任何组织中的少数派),外部目标的存在不那么重要,因为高成就者往往已经具有内部动机。下一个要确定的因素是目标应该由经理分配还是与员工共同设定。答案取决于目标接受度和组织文化。如果对目标可能存在抵触,那么参与目标制定会增加接受度。但是,如果参与与公司文化不一致,则应指定目标。因为如果参与和公司文化不匹配,则员工可能会认为参与过程受到操控,并因此受到负面影响。

要点三

Regardless of whether goals are achievable or well within management’s perceptions of the employee’s ability, if employees see them as unachievable they will reduce their effort. Managers must be sure, therefore, that employees feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals. For managers, this means that employees must have the capability of doing the job and must regard the appraisal process as valid.

无论目标是否可以实现,或者是否在管理层对员工能力的认知之内,如果员工认为目标无法实现,他们将减少工作量。因此,管理人员必须确保员工对自己通过努力能够实现绩效目标充满信心。对于管理人员来说,这意味着员工必须具有完成工作的能力,并且必须认为评估过程是有效的。

要点四

Since employees have different needs, what acts as a reinforcement for one may not for another. Managers could use their knowledge of each employee to personalise the rewards over which they have control. Some of the more obvious rewards that managers allocate include pay, promotions, autonomy, job scope and depth, and the opportunity to participate in goal-setting and decision-making.

由于员工有不同的需求,因此对一个人的激励可能不适合另外一个人。管理人员可以利用他们对每个员工的了解来个性化他们所控制的奖励。管理人员分配的一些显而易见的奖励包括薪资,晋升,自主权,工作范围和深度,以及参与目标设定和决策的机会。

要点五

Managers need to make rewards contingent on performance. To reward factors other than performance will only reinforce those other factors. Key rewards such as pay increases and promotions or advancements should be allocated for the attainment of the employee’s specific goals. Consistent with maximising the impact of rewards, managers should look for ways to increase their visibility. Eliminating the secrecy surrounding pay by openly communicating everyone’s remuneration, publicising performance bonuses and allocating annual salary increases in a lump sum rather than spreading them out over an entire year are examples of actions that will make rewards more visible and potentially more motivating.

管理人员需要根据绩效来给予奖励。奖励绩效以外的其他因素只会增强这些因素。应根据员工是否实现特定目标来给予关键性奖励,如加薪和晋升。与最大程度地发挥奖励的作用相一致,管理人员应寻求提高可见度的方法。通过公开地交流每个人的薪酬,公布绩效奖金并一次性分配年薪增长而不是将其分摊到整个年度中,消除围绕工资的保密性。这些举动将使奖励更加显眼并且可能更具激励作用。

要点六

The way rewards are distributed should be transparent so that employees perceive that rewards or outcomes are equitable and equal to the inputs given. On a simplistic level, experience, abilities, effort and other obvious inputs should explain differences in pay, responsibility and other obvious outcomes. The problem, however, is complicated by the existence of dozens of inputs and outcomes and by the fact that employee groups place different degrees of importance on them. For instance, a study comparing clerical and production workers identified nearly twenty inputs and outcomes. The clerical workers considered factors such as quality of work performed and job knowledge near the top of their list, but these were at the bottom of the production workers’ list. Similarly, production workers thought that the most important inputs were intelligence and personal involvement with task accomplishment, two factors that were quite low in the importance ratings of the clerks. There were also important, though less dramatic, differences on the outcome side. For example, production workers rated advancement very highly, whereas clerical workers rated advancement in the lower third of their list. Such findings suggest that one person’s equity is another’s inequity, so an ideal should probably weigh different inputs and outcomes according to employee group.

奖励的分配方式应该保持透明,以便员工认为奖励或成果是公正的,与投入相当。简单来说,经验、能力、努力和其他明显的投入应该足以解释薪酬、责任和其他明显成果的差异。但是,由于存在数十种投入和成果以及员工群体对它们的重视程度不同,这一问题其实非常复杂。例如,一项比较办公职员和生产工人的研究确定了近二十种投入和成果。办公职员将诸如工作质量和工作知识之类的因素放在他们的列表的顶部,但是这些因素却在生产工人列表的底部。同样,生产工人认为最重要的投入是智力和完成任务的个人参与度,这两个因素在文员的重要等级中都很低。结果方面也存在着重要的差异,尽管没有那么戏剧性。例如,生产工人将晋升列地很高,而文职人员则将晋升放在他们列表的后三分之一处。这些发现表明,一个人的公平意味着另一个人的不公平,因此理想情况下,应该根据员工群体权衡不同的投入和结果。

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