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剑桥雅思6 Test1阅读Passage3原文翻译 Climate Change and the Inuit  […]

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剑桥雅思6 Test1阅读Passage3原文翻译 Climate Change and the Inuit 气候变化与因纽特人

剑桥雅思6阅读第一套题目第三篇文章的主题为气候变化与因纽特人。文章一共7个自然段,介绍了气候变化对北极-因纽特人主要生活区域-的影响,以及他们应对措施和生活方式的变化。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思6 test 1 passage 3 气候变化与因纽特人

剑桥雅思6Test1阅读Passage3答案解析 Climate Change and the Inuit 气候变化与因纽特人

剑桥雅思6 Test 1 Passage 3阅读原文翻译

A部分

Unusual incidents are being reported across the Arctic. Inuit families going off on snowmobiles to prepare their summer hunting camps have found themselves cut off from home by a sea of mud, following early thaws. There are reports of igloos losing their insulating properties as the snow drips and refreezes, of lakes draining into the sea as permafrost melts, and sea ice breaking up earlier than usual, carrying seals beyond the reach of hunters. Climate change may still be a rather abstract idea to most of us, but in the Arctic it is already having dramatic effects – if summertime ice continues to shrink at its present rate, the Arctic Ocean could soon become virtually ice-free in summer. The knock-on effects are likely to include more warming, cloudier skies, increased precipitation and higher sea levels. Scientists are increasingly keen to find out what’s going on because they consider the Arctic the ‘canary in the mine’ for global warming – a warning of what’s in store for the rest of the world.

北极各地都有不寻常事件的报道。因提前解冻,乘坐雪地摩托去准备夏季狩猎营地的因纽特人发现自己被泥泞的海水隔绝了有报道说,因为积雪滴落并重新冻结,冰屋失去了其隔热性;随着永久冻土融化,湖水被排入海中;海冰比平时更早破裂,使海豹无法被猎人触及对于我们大多数人来说,气候变化可能仍然是一个相当抽象的概念。但是在北极,它已经产生了巨大的影响-如果夏季冰面继续以当前的速度缩小,则北冰洋可能很快在夏天变得彻底无冰。连锁效应可能包括气候更加温暖,天空更加多云,降水量增加和海平面升高。科学家们越来越渴望弄清楚正在发生什么,因为他们认为北极是全球变暖中“矿井里的金丝雀”,是对世界其他地区接下来发生事情的警告。

B部分

For the Inuit the problem is urgent. They live in precarious balance with one of the toughest environments on earth. Climate change, whatever its causes, is a direct threat to their way of life. Nobody knows the Arctic as well as the locals, which is why they are not content simply to stand back and let outside experts tell them what’s happening. In Canada, where the Inuit people are jealously guarding their hard-won autonomy in the country’s newest territory, Nunavut, they believe their best hope of survival in this changing environment lies in combining their ancestral knowledge with the best of modern science. This is a challenge in itself.

对于因纽特人来说,这个问题很紧急。他们与地球上最艰难的环境之一共同存在于不稳定的平衡中。不论其成文章来自老烤鸭雅思因如何,气候变化都直接威胁着他们的生活方式。没有人像当地人那样了解北极,这也是为什么他们不满足于简单地退缩并让外部专家告诉他们所发生的事情的原因。在加拿大,因纽特人在该国最新领土努纳武特(Nunavut)捍卫来之不易的自治,他们相信在这一正在变化的环境中生存的最大希望在于将其祖先知识与现代科学的精华相结合。这本身就是一个挑战。

C部分

The Canadian Arctic is a vast, treeless polar desert that’s covered with snow for most of the year. Venture into this terrain and you get some idea of the hardships facing anyone who calls this home. Farming is out of the question and nature offers meagre pickings. Humans first settled in the Arctic a mere 4,500 years ago, surviving by exploiting sea mammals and fish. The environment tested them to the limits: sometimes the colonists were successful, sometimes they failed and vanished. But around a thousand years ago, one group emerged that was uniquely well adapted to cope with the Arctic environment. These Thule people moved in from Alaska, bringing kayaks, sleds, dogs, pottery and iron tools. They are the ancestors of today’s Inuit people.

加拿大北极地区是一片广阔而寸草不生的极地荒漠,一年中大部分时间都覆盖着白雪。冒险进入这片土地,你就会对那些将其称之为家的人所面临的困境有所了解。农业是不可能的,自然采集也很少。距今4,500年前,人类才开始在北极定居,并通过利用海洋哺乳动物和鱼类生存。环境将他们逼到极限:有时殖民者成功,有时他们失败并且消失。但是在大约一千年前,出现了一个非常适应北极环境的群体。这些图勒人从阿拉斯加迁移过来,带来了皮划艇,雪橇,狗,陶器和铁制工具。他们是当今因纽特人的祖先。

D部分

Life for the descendants of the Thule people is still harsh. Nunavut is 1.9 million square kilometers of rock and ice, and a handful of islands around the North Pole. It’s currently home to 2,500 people, all but a handful of them indigenous Inuit. Over the past 40 years, most have abandoned their nomadic ways and settled in the territory’s 28 isolated communities, but they still rely heavily on nature to provide food and clothing.

图勒人后代的生活仍然严峻。努纳武特(Nunavut)是一块1900万平方公里土地。它布满岩石和冰山,还包括北极周围的一些岛屿。目前有2500人居住在这里。除了少数人之外,其他全都是土著因纽特人。在过去40年中,大多数人放弃了游牧方式,定居在该地区28个孤立的社区之中,但他们仍然严重依赖自然来提供食物和衣物。

Provisions available in local shops have to be flown into Nunavut on one of the most costly air networks in the world, or brought by supply ship during the few ice-free weeks of summer. It would cost a family around f7,000 a year to replace meat they obtained themselves through hunting with imported meat. Economic opportunities are scarce, and for many people state benefits are their only income.

当地商店中的物品必须经过世界上最昂贵的空中网络之一运到努纳武特,或者在夏季少数几个无冰周里通过补给船运送。如果一个家庭用进口肉类代替他们自己打猎所获得的肉,他们每年将花费7000英镑。经济机会稀缺,对许多人来说,国家福利是他们唯一的收入。

E部分

While the Inuit may not actually starve if hunting and trapping are curtailed by climate change, there has certainly been an impact on people’s health. Obesity, heart disease and diabetes are beginning to appear in a people for whom these have never before been problems. There has been a crisis of identity as the traditional skills of hunting, trapping and preparing skins have begun to disappear. In Nunavut’s ‘igloo and email’ society, where adults who were born in igloos have children who may never have been out on the land, there’s a high incidence of depression.

尽管气候变化限制了狩猎和诱捕,因纽特人实际上并不太可能会饿死。但这无疑对人们的健康产生了影响。肥胖,心脏病和糖尿病开始在一个之前从来没有出现过这些问题的人群中出现。随着传统的狩猎,诱捕和制皮技能开始消失,身份认同出现危机。在努纳武特(Nunavut )的“冰屋与电子邮件”社会中,在冰屋中出生的成年人所生的孩子可能从来没有在外地生活过,这造成抑郁症的发生率很高。

F部分

With so much at stake, the Inuit are determined to play a key role in teasing out the mysteries of climate change in the Arctic. Having survived there for centuries, they believe their wealth of traditional knowledge is vital to the task. And Western scientists are starting to draw on this wisdom, increasingly referred to as ‘Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit’, or IQ. ‘In the early days, scientists ignored us when they came up here to study anything. They just figured these people don’t know very much so we won’t ask them,’ says John Amagoalik, an Inuit leader and politician. ‘But in recent years IQ has had much more credibility and weight.’ In fact it is now a requirement for anyone hoping to get permission to do research that they consult the communities, who are helping to set the research agenda to reflect their most important concerns. They can turn down applications from scientists they believe will work against their interests, or research projects that will impinge too much on their daily lives and traditional activities.

有如此多的事情处于危险之中,因纽特人决心在探索北极气候变化的秘密方面发挥关键作用。在那里生存了几个世纪,他们相信自己丰富的传统知识对这项任务至关重要。西方科学家也开始利用这种智慧,越来越多地将其称为“Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit”或IQ。“早些时候,科学家来我们这里研究东西时都无视我们。他们只是认为这些人了解不多,所以我们不会问他们。”因纽特人领导人和政治家约翰·阿马戈阿利克(John Amagoalik)说,“但是近年来,IQ有了更多的信誉和重要性”。事实上,咨询当地社区现在已经是任何想要获得许可进行研究的人的基本要求。他们能够帮助设立研究日程,以反映其最主要的关切。他们可以拒绝他们认为会损害其利益的科学家的申请,或者拒绝可能对他们的日常生活和传统活动造成太大影响的研究项目。

G部分

Some scientists doubt the value of traditional knowledge because the occupation of the Arctic doesn’t go back far enough. Others, however, point out that the first weather stations in the far north date back just 50 years. There are still huge gaps in our environmental knowledge, and despite the scientific onslaught, many predictions are no more than best guesses. IQ could help to bridge the gap and resolve the tremendous uncertainty about how much of what we’re seeing is natural capriciousness and how much is the consequence of human activity.

一些科学家怀疑传统知识的价值,因为对北极的占领并不够久远。然而,其他人指出,最北端第一个气象站的历史才可以追溯到50年前。我们的环境知识仍然存在巨大差距。尽管科学家们努力探索,但许多预测不过是最好的猜测而已。IQ可以帮助缩小差距,解决巨大的不确定性,即我们看到的情况中有多少是自然的反复无常,有多少是人类活动的结果。

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