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剑桥雅思6 Test 1阅读Passage 1原文翻译 Australia’s Sporting […]


剑桥雅思6 Test 1阅读Passage 1原文翻译 Australia’s Sporting Success 澳大利亚的体育成就



雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思6 test 1 passage 1 澳大利亚的体育成就

剑桥雅思6 Test1阅读Passage1答案解析 Australia’s Sporting Success 澳大利亚体育成就

剑桥雅思6 Test 1 Passage 1阅读原文翻译


They play hard, they play often, and they play to win. Australian sports teams win more than their fair share of titles, demolishing rivals with seeming ease. How do they do it? A big part of the secret is an extensive and expensive network of sporting academies underpinned by science and medicine. At the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS), hundreds of youngsters and pros live and train under the eyes of coaches. Another body, the Australian Sports Commission (ASC), finances programmes of excellence in a total of 96 sports for thousands of sportsmen and women. Both provide intensive coaching, training facilities and nutritional advice.



Inside the academies, science takes centre stage. The AIS employs more than 100 sports scientists and doctors, and collaborates with scores of others in universities and research centres. AIS scientists work across a number of sports, applying skills learned in one – such as building muscle strength in golfers – to others, such as swimming and squash. They are backed up by technicians who design instruments to collect data from athletes. They all focus on one aim: winning. ‘We can’t waste our time looking at ethereal scientific questions that don’t help the coach work with an athlete and improve performance,’ says Peter Fricker, chief of science at AIS.

在学院内部,科学占据舞台的中心。AIS聘用了100多名体育科学家和医生,并与大学和研究中心的其他数十名人员进行了合作。AIS科学家的工作文章来自老烤鸭雅思涵盖多种体育活动,将在一项运动中学到的技能(例如提高高尔夫球手的肌肉力量)应用到其他运动中,例如游泳和壁球。它们得到技术人员的支持。这些技术人员设计仪器以收集运动员数据。他们都专注于一个目标:获胜。AIS科学主任彼得·弗里克(Peter Fricker)表示:“我们不能浪费时间在飘渺的科学问题上,这些问题不能帮助教练与运动员合作并提高成绩。”


A lot of their work comes down to measurement – everything from the exact angle of a swimmer’s dive to the second-by-second power output of a cyclist. This data is used to wring improvements out of athletes. The focus is on individuals, tweaking performances to squeeze an extra hundredth of a second here, an extra millimetre there. No gain is too slight to bother with. It’s the tiny, gradual improvements that add up to world-beating results. To demonstrate how the system works, Bruce Mason at AIS shows off the prototype of a 3D analysis tool for studying swimmers. A wire-frame model of a champion swimmer slices through the water, her arms moving in slow motion. Looking side-on, Mason measures the distance between strokes. From above, he analyses how her spine swivels. When fully developed, this system will enable him to build a biomechanical profile for coaches to use to help budding swimmers. Mason’s contribution to sport also includes the development of the SWAN (SWimming ANalysis)system now used in Australian national competitions. It collects images from digital cameras running at 50 frames a second and breaks down each part of a swimmer’s performance into factors that can be analysed individually – stroke length, stroke frequency, average duration of each stroke, velocity, start, lap and finish times, and so on. At the end of each race, SWAN spits out data on each swimmer

他们的许多工作都归结为测量-从游泳者入水的确切角度到骑行者的每秒功率输出,无所不包。这些数据用于促进运动员的进步。重点放在个人身上,通过在这里提升百分之一秒,在那里提升一毫米来调整运动员的表现。没有任何提升是微不足道的。正是这种微小的、逐步的改进积累成世界瞩目的成果。为了演示该系统的工作原理,AIS的Bruce Mason展示了用于研究游泳者的3D分析工具的原型。冠军游泳者的线框模型划过水面,手臂以慢动作运动。从侧面看,梅森测量每次划水之间的距离。从上面,他分析了她的脊椎如何旋转。完全开发后,该系统将使他能够建立生物力学特征,供教练使用,以帮助崭露头角的游泳者。梅森(Mason)对体育的贡献还包括开发了SWAN(SWimming ANalysis)系统,该系统现已在澳大利亚全国比赛中使用。它从以每秒50帧的速度运行的数码相机中收集图像,并将游泳者表现的每个部分分解为可以单独分析的因素-划水长度,划水频率,每次划水的平均持续时间,速度,开始,圈速和结束时间,等等。在每场比赛结束时,SWAN会向每位游泳者反馈数据。


‘Take a look,’ says Mason, pulling out a sheet of data. He points out the data on the swimmers in second and third place, which shows that the one who finished third actually swam faster. So why did he finish 35 hundredths of a second down? ‘His turn times were 44 hundredths of a second behind the other guy,’ says Mason. ‘If he can improve on his turns, he can do much better’ This is the kind of accuracy that AIS scientists’ research is bringing to a range of sports. With the Cooperative Research Centre for Micro Technology in Melbourne, they are developing unobtrusive sensors that will be embedded in an athlete’s clothes or running shoes to monitor heart rate, sweating, heat production or any other factor that might have an impact on an athlete’s ability to run. There’s more to it than simply measuring performance. Fricker gives the example of athletes who may be down with coughs and colds 11 or 12 times a year. After years of experimentation, AlS and the University of Newcastle in New South Wales developed a test that measures how much of the immune-system protein immunoglobulin A is present in athletes’ saliva. If IgA levels suddenly fall below a certain level, training is eased or dropped altogether. Soon, IgA levels start rising again, and the danger passes. Since the tests were introduced, AIS athletes in all sports have been remarkably successful at staying healthy.

“看看吧”梅森拿出一张数据单,他指出了第二名和第三名游泳者的数据。它显示第三名的游泳者实际上游泳得更快。那么,为什么他慢了0.35秒呢?梅森说:“他的转身时间比另一个人慢了0.44秒。” “如果他能在转弯中有所进步,就可以做得更好”。这是AIS科学家的研究为一系列运动带来的准确性。通过与墨尔本微技术合作研究中心的合作,他们正在开发不显眼的传感器。该传感器将嵌入运动员的衣服或跑鞋中,以监测心率,出汗,产热量或任何其他可能影响运动员跑步能力的因素。除了简单地衡量表现之外,它还有更多的功能。弗里克(Fricker)举了每年可能因咳嗽和感冒而倒下11次或12次的运动员的例子。经过多年的实验,ALS和纽卡斯尔的新南威尔士大学开发出一种测试,可以测量运动员唾液中免疫球蛋白A的数量。如果IgA水平突然下降到一定水平以下,则训练就会更加轻松或完全放弃。很快,IgA水平又开始上升,危险过去了。自从引入测试以来,AIS所有项目的运动员在保持健康方面都非常成功。


Using data is a complex business. Well before a championship, sports scientists and coaches start to prepare the athlete by developing a ‘competition model’, based on what they expect will be the winning times. ‘You design the model to make that time,’ says Mason. ‘A start of this much, each free-swimming period has to be this fast, with a certain stroke frequency and stroke length, with turns done in these times.’ All the training is then geared towards making the athlete hit those targets, both overall and for each segment of the race. Techniques like these have transformed Australia into arguably the world’s most successful sporting nation.



Of course, there’s nothing to stop other countries copying-and many have tried. Some years ago, the AIS unveiled coolant-lined jackets for endurance athletes. At the Atlanta Olympic Games in 1996, these sliced as much as two per cent off cyclists’ and rowers’ times. Now everyone uses them. The same has happened to the ‘altitude tent’, developed by AIS to replicate the effect of altitude training at sea level. But Australia’s success story is about more than easily copied technological fixes, and up to now no nation has replicated its all-encompassing system.


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