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剑桥雅思8Test3阅读Passage3原文翻译 How Does the Biological Clock […]

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剑桥雅思8Test3阅读Passage3原文翻译 How Does the Biological Clock Tick 生物钟如何工作

剑桥雅思8阅读第三套题目第三篇文章的主题为生物钟如何工作。文章共有7段,分别介绍了所有物品都有损耗,物品变旧与生物衰老的差别,死亡的原理,人类的平均寿命,生物钟控制寿命,能量消耗在此过程中的作用,以及节约能够可以延年益寿。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

点击查看这篇雅思阅读中需要大家掌握的重点词汇与具体题目的答案解析

雅思真题阅读词汇 剑桥雅思8 test 3 passage 3 生物钟的工作原理

剑桥雅思8Test3阅读Passage3答案解析 How does the Biological Clock Tick 生物钟如何工作

剑桥雅思8 Test3 Passage3阅读原文翻译

段落A

Our life span is restricted. Everyone accepts this as ‘biologically’ obvious. ‘Nothing lives for ever!’ However, in this statement we think of artificially produced, technical objects, products which are subjected to natural wear and tear during use. This leads to the result that at some time or other the object stops working and is unusable (‘death’ in the biological sense). But are the wear and tear and loss of function of technical objects and the death of living organisms really similar or comparable?

我们的寿命受到限制。每个人都认为这是“生物学上”显而易见的。 “没有什么能够永生!”但是,在这一说法中,我们想到的是人工生产的技术物品以及在使用过程中会遭受自然磨损的产品。这导致以下结果:物体有时会停止工作并且无法使用(生物学意义上的“死亡”)。但是,技术物品的磨损与功能丧失和有机物的死亡真的是相似的或可比较的吗?

段落B

Our ‘dead’ products are ‘static’, closed systems. It is always the basic material which constitutes the object and which, in the natural course of things, is worn down and becomes ‘older’. Ageing in this case must occur according to the laws of physical chemistry and of thermodynamics. Although the same law holds for a living organism, the result of this law is not inexorable in the same way. At least as long as a biological system has the ability to renew itself it could actually become older without ageing; an organism is an open, dynamic system through which new material continuously flows. Destruction of old material and formation of new material are thus in permanent dynamic equilibrium. The material of which the organism is formed changes continuously. Thus our bodies continuously exchange old substance for new, just like a spring which more or less maintains its form and movement, but in which the water molecules are always different.

我们的“死去的”产品是“静态的”封闭系统。构成物体的基本材料在事物的自然发展过程中会被磨损并变“旧”。在这种情况下,老化必须根据物理化学和热力学定律进行。尽管文章来自老烤鸭雅思同样的规律也适用于生物,但该规律的结果并非不可避免。至少只要生物系统具有更新自身的能力,它实际上就可以变老而不老化。生物是一个开放的,动态的系统。新材料在其中不断流动。因此,旧材料的破坏和新材料的形成处于永久的动态平衡中。形成生物的物质不断变化。 因此,我们的身体不断地将旧物质换为新物质,就像一个或多或少保持其形态和运动的弹簧一样,但是其中的水分子总是不同的。

段落C

Thus ageing and death should not be seen as inevitable, particularly as the organism possesses many mechanisms for repair. It is not, in principle, necessary for a biological system to age and die. Nevertheless, a restricted life span, ageing, and then death are basic characteristics of life. The reason for this is easy to recognise: in nature, the existent organisms either adapt or are regularly replaced by new types. Because of changes in the genetic material (mutations) these have new characteristics and in the course of their individual lives they are tested for optimal or better adaptation to the environmental conditions. Immortality would disturb this system – it needs room for new and better life. This is the basic problem of evolution.

因此,衰老和死亡不应被看作是必然的,尤其是当生物体具有许多修复机制。原则上,生物系统没有必要发生老化和死亡。然而,有限的寿命,衰老,然后死亡是生命的基本特征。我们很容易意识到其原因:在自然界中,现有的生物要么适应新生物,要么定期被新生物取代。由于遗传物质(突变)的变化,它们具有新的特征。在其个体生命过程中,它们经受测试以更好地适应环境条件。永生会扰乱这个系统-它需要为新的、更好的生命创造空间。这是进化的基本问题。

段落D

Every organism has a life span which is highly characteristic. There are striking differences in life span between different species, but within one species the parameter is relatively constant. For example, the average duration of human life has hardly changed in thousands of years. Although more and more people attain an advanced age as a result of developments in medical care and better nutrition, the characteristic upper limit for most remains 80 years. A further argument against the simple wear and tear theory is the observation that the time within which organisms age lies between a few days (even a few hours for unicellular organisms) and several thousand years, as with mammoth trees.

每个生物体都有其独具特色的生命长度。不同物种之间的寿命存在显著差异。但在一个物种内,参数相对恒定。例如,人类的平均寿命几千年来几乎没有变化。尽管越来越多的人由于医疗保健的发展和更好的营养而达到高龄,但对于大多数人来说,其典型的上限仍然是80岁。反对简单磨损理论的另一个论据来自以下观察,生物衰老的时间介于几天(单细胞生物甚至几小时)和数千年之间(正如巨杉树一样)。

段落E

If a life span is a genetically determined biological characteristic, it is logically necessary to propose the existence of an internal clock, which in some way measures and controls the ageing process and which finally determines death as the last step in a fixed programme. Like the life span, the metabolic rate has for different organisms a fixed mathematical relationship to the body mass. In comparison to the life span this relationship is ‘inverted’: the larger the organism the lower its metabolic rate. Again this relationship is valid not only for birds, but also, similarly on average within the systematic unit, for all other organisms (plants, animals, unicellular organisms).

如果寿命是遗传决定的生物学特征,那么从逻辑上讲,有必要提出一个内部时钟的存在。该时钟以某种方式测量和控制衰老过程,并最终将死亡确定为固定程序中的最后一步。像寿命一样,不同生物体的代谢率与其体重之间存在固定的数学关系。与寿命相比,这种关系是“倒置的”:生物体越大,其代谢率越低。同样,这种关系不仅对鸟类有效,而且对于系统单位内相似的所有其他生物同样有效(植物,动物,单细胞生物)。

段落F

Animals which behave ‘frugally’ with energy become particularly old, for example, crocodiles and tortoises. Parrots and birds of prey are often held chained up. Thus they are not able to ‘experience life’ and so they attain a high life span in captivity. Animals which save energy by hibernation or lethargy (e. g. bats or hedgehogs) live much longer than those which are always active. The metabolic rate of mice can be reduced by a very low consumption of food (hunger diet). They then may live twice as long as their well-fed comrades. Women become distinctly (about 10 per cent) older than men. If you examine the metabolic rates of the two sexes you establish that the higher male metabolic rate roughly accounts for the lower male life span. That means that they live life ‘energetically’ – more intensively, but not for as long.

表现“节俭”的动物能活的特别久,例如鳄鱼和乌龟。鹦鹉和猛禽经常被拴起来。因此,他们无法“体验生活”,但他们在囚禁中的寿命却很高。通过冬眠或嗜睡来节省能量的动物(例如蝙蝠或刺猬)的寿命比总是活跃的动物更长。极少消耗食物(饥饿饮食)可降低小白鼠的代谢率。然后,他们的寿命是他们经过良好喂养的同伴的两倍。女性明显比男性活的长(大约10%)。如果检查两个性别的新陈代谢率,则可以确定较高的男性新陈代谢率大致解释了较低的男性寿命。这意味着他们“精力充沛”地过着更加紧张的生活,但时间不长。

段落G

It follows from the above that sparing use of energy reserves should tend to extend life. Extreme high performance sports may lead to optimal cardiovascular performance, but they quite certainly do not prolong life. Relaxation lowers metabolic rate, as does adequate sleep and in general an equable and balanced personality. Each of us can develop his or her own ‘energy saving programme’ with a little self-observation, critical self-control and, above all, logical consistency. Experience will show that to live in this way not only increases the life span but is also very healthy. This final aspect should not be forgotten.

由上述内容可知,节约使用能量会倾向于延长寿命。极限的高性能运动可能会导致最佳的心血管运动表现,但无疑不会延长寿命。放松会降低新陈代谢的速度,充足的睡眠和良好的性格也会降低新陈代谢的速度。我们每个人都可以通过一些自我观察,严格的自我控制以及最重要的逻辑一致性来制定自己的“节能计划”。经验表明,以这种方式生活不仅可以延长寿命,而且非常健康。最后一个方面不应被忘记。

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