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剑桥雅思16Test4Passage1阅读原文翻译 Roman tunnels 罗马隧道 剑桥雅思16阅读第四 […]

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剑桥雅思16Test4Passage1阅读原文翻译 Roman tunnels 罗马隧道

剑桥雅思16阅读第四套题目第一篇文章的主题为罗马隧道。文章一共5段,分别介绍了波斯人修建隧道的暗渠法,罗马人传承之后的方法,反向挖掘法的操作,隧道的其他用途等内容。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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剑桥雅思16Test4Passage1阅读答案解析 Roman tunnels 罗马隧道

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引言

The Romans, who once controlled areas of Europe, North Africa and Asia Minor, adopted the construction techniques of other civilizations to build tunnels in their territories.

曾经控制欧洲、北非和小亚细亚的罗马人,使用其他文明的建筑技巧来在他们自己的领土上修建隧道。

第1段

The Persians, who lived in present-day Iran, were one of the first civilizations to build tunnels that provided a reliable supply of water to human settlements in dry areas. In the early first millennium BCE, they introduced the qanat method of tunnel construction, which consisted of placing posts over a hill in a straight line, to ensure that the tunnel kept to its route, and then digging vertical shafts down into the ground at regular intervals. Underground, workers removed the earth from between the ends of the shafts, creating a tunnel. The excavated soil was taken up to the surface using the shafts, which also provided ventilation during the work. Once the tunnel was completed, it allowed water to flow from the top of a hillside down towards a canal, which supplied water for human use. Remarkably, some qanats built by the Persians 2,700 years ago are still in use today.

生活在今天伊朗地区的波斯人是最早修建隧道从而为干燥地区的聚居点提供可靠水源的文明之一。早在公元前一千年,他们就采用暗渠法修建隧道。这包括在山上按照直线打桩,确保隧道沿其路线行进,然后以规律的间隔在地面上打出竖井。地下,工人将竖井末端之间的土壤挖出形成隧道。挖出的土壤通过竖井运送到地面。这些竖井也在工程期间提供通风。一旦隧道完成,水就可以从山顶流向水渠,供人类使用。令人惊讶的是,一些波斯人在2700年前修建的暗渠如今仍在使用。

第2段

They later passed on their knowledge to the Romans, who also used the qanat method to construct water-supply tunnels for agriculture. Roman qanat tunnels were constructed with vertical shafts dug at intervals of between 30 and 60 meters. The shafts were equipped with handholds and footholds to help those climbing in and out of them and were covered with a wooden or stone lid. To ensure that the shafts were vertical, this article is from Laokaoya website, Romans hung a plumb line from a rod placed across the top of each shaft and made sure that the weight at the end of it hung in the center of the shaft. Plumb lines were also used to measure the depth of the shaft and to determine the slope of the tunnel. The 5.6-kilometer-long Claudius tunnel, built in 41 CE to drain the Fucine Lake in central Italy, had shafts that were up to 122 meters deep, took 11 years to build and involved approximately 30,000 workers.

他们随后将这些知识传给罗马人。罗马人使用这一暗渠法为农业修建供水隧道。罗马人暗渠隧道的竖井彼此之间间隔30到60米。竖井配备有扶手和脚蹬以帮助攀爬进出的人们,并且盖有木制或者石制的盖子。为了确保竖井垂直,罗马人将铅锤线挂在横跨竖井顶部的木棒上,确保尾端重物位于竖井中心。铅垂线也被用来测量竖井的深度,决定隧道的坡度。长达5.6千米的克劳狄隧道修建于公元41年,以便从意大利中部的Fucine湖抽水。其竖井深达122米,大约30000名工人用了11年的时间才完成。

第3段

By the 6th century BCE, a second method of tunnel construction appeared called the counter- excavation method, in which the tunnel was constructed from both ends. It was used to cut through high mountains when the qanat method was not a practical alternative. This method required greater planning and advanced knowledge of surveying, mathematics and geometry as both ends of a tunnel had to meet correctly at the center of the mountain. Adjustments to the direction of the tunnel also had to be made whenever builders encountered geological problems or when it deviated from its set path. They constantly checked the tunnel’s advancing direction, for example, by looking back at the light that penetrated through the tunnel mouth, and made corrections whenever necessary. Large deviations could happen, and they could result in one end of the tunnel not being usable. An inscription written on the side of a 428-meter tunnel, built by the Romans as part of the Saldae aqueduct system in modern-day Algeria, describes how the two teams of builders missed each other in the mountain and how the later construction of a lateral link between both corridors corrected the initial error.

公元前六世纪出现了第二种修建隧道的方法(反向挖掘法)。这种方法中,隧道从两端同时修建。它被用于穿越无法使用暗渠法的高山。这种方法需要更好的规划,以及测绘、数学和几何方面的高深知识,因为隧道两端必须在山的中央准确相遇。当建筑工人文章来自老烤鸭雅思遇到地质问题,或者当它偏离设定路线时,就必须对隧道的方向进行调整。他们经常通过观察隧道口射进来的光线来检查隧道前进的方向,并在必要的时候做出调整。大幅偏离可能发生,导致隧道一端变得不可用。一条长达428米的隧道侧面的铭刻描述了两队建筑工人如何在山中错过彼此,以及如何在两条通道之间修建横向连接以纠正最初的错误。

第4段

The Romans dug tunnels for their roads using the counter-excavation method, whenever they encountered obstacles such as hills or mountains that were too high for roads to pass over. An example is the 37-meter-long, 6-meter-high, Furlo Pass Tunnel built in Italy in 69-79 CE. Remarkably, a modern road still uses this tunnel today. Tunnels were also built for mineral extraction. Miners would locate a mineral vein and then pursue it with shafts and tunnels underground. Traces of such tunnels used to mine gold can still be found at the Dolaucothi mines in Wales. When the sole purpose of a tunnel was mineral extraction, construction required less planning, as the tunnel route was determined by the mineral vein.

当罗马人遇到障碍,如道路无法跨越的过高山峰时,他们就会使用反向挖掘法为道路挖掘隧道。一个例子是修建于公元69年到公元79年,位于意大利的Furlo Pass隧道。它长37米,高6米。令人惊讶的是,一条现代公路今天仍然在使用该隧道。隧道也被用于挖矿。矿工会定位矿脉,然后利用竖井和地下隧道追寻它。如今,我们在威尔士Dolaucothi矿区仍然可以看到一些用于挖掘金矿的隧道的痕迹。当隧道只用于挖矿时,其建造所需要的规划就少了许多,因为隧道路线由矿脉决定。

第5段

Roman tunnel projects were carefully planned and carried out. The length of time it took to construct a tunnel depended on the method being used and the type of rock being excavated. The qanat construction method was usually faster than the counter-excavation method as it was more straightforward. This was because the mountain could be excavated not only from the tunnel mouths but also from shafts. The type of rock could also influence construction times. When the rock was hard, the Romans employed a technique called fire quenching which consisted of healing the rock with fire, and then suddenly cooling it with cold water so that it would crack. Progress through hard rock could be very slow, and it was not uncommon for tunnels to take years, if not decades, to be built. Construction marks left on a Roman tunnel in Bologna show that the rate of advance through solid rock was 30 centimeters per day. In contrast, the rate of advance of the Claudius tunnel can be calculated at 1.4 meters per day. Most tunnels had inscriptions showing the names of patrons who ordered construction and sometimes the name of the architect. For example, the 1.4-kilometer Cevlik tunnel in Turkey, built to divert the floodwater threatening the harbor of the ancient city of Seleuceia Pieria, had inscriptions on the entrance, still visible today, that also indicate that the tunnel was started in 69 CE and was completed in 81 CE.

罗马隧道项目规划认真,施工仔细。修建一条隧道的时间长短取决于其所使用的方法,以及挖掘的岩石类型。暗渠法因为更加直接,要比反向挖掘法更快一点。这是因为山脉不仅可以从隧道口挖掘,而且也可以通过竖井。岩石类型也会影响建造时间。当岩石坚硬时,罗马人会使用一种叫作fire quenching的方法。他们先用火加热石头,然后突然用凉水将它冷却,从而造成裂缝。穿越坚硬岩石的进展会非常缓慢。用数年,甚至数十年的时间修建隧道并不少见。博洛尼亚一条罗马隧道内留下的建筑痕迹显示,它在坚硬岩石中前进的速度为每天30厘米。相比之下,计算出来的克劳狄隧道的前进速度为每天1.4米。大多数隧道都有铭刻,显示命令修建隧道的赞助人的名字,有时候也会有建筑师的名字。例如,土耳其境内,为了分流威胁到Seleuceia Pieria古城港口的洪水而修建的,长达1.4千米的Cevlik隧道,在入口处就有如今仍然可见的铭刻。它同时也表明该隧道的修建开始于公元69年,完成于公元81年。

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