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剑桥雅思16Test3Passage2阅读原文翻译 Climate change reveals ancien […]

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剑桥雅思16Test3Passage2阅读原文翻译 Climate change reveals ancient artefacts in Norway’s glaciers

剑桥雅思16阅读第三套题目第二篇文章的主题为挪威冰层中的古代人工制品。文章一共8部分,分别介绍了气候变暖对冰层的影响,冰层对文物的保护,Barret团队实地考察的区域,具体的考古发现等内容。下面是具体每一段的翻译。

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剑桥雅思16Test3Passage2阅读答案解析 Climate change reveals ancient artefacts in Norway’s glaciers

剑桥雅思16 Test3 Passage2阅读原文翻译

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A部分

Well above the treeline in Norway’s highest mountains, ancient fields of ice are shrinking as Earth’s climate warms. As the ice has vanished, it has been giving up the treasures it has preserved in cold storage for the last 6,000 years – items such as ancient arrows and skis from Viking Age traders. And those artefacts have provided archaeologists with some surprising insights into how ancient Norwegians made their livings.

在挪威最高峰的林木线以上,古老冰层的面积正在随着地球气候变暖而缩减。随着冰层的消失,它在过去6000年里保存的财宝也显现出来 – 比如来自维京时代商人的古老箭头和滑雪板。这些物品让考古学家惊讶地了解到古代维京人是如何谋生的。

B部分

Organic materials like textiles and hides are relatively rare finds at archaeological sites. This is because unless they’re protected from the microorganisms that cause decay, they tend not to last long. Extreme cold is one reliable way to keep artefacts relatively fresh for a few thousand years, but once thawed out, these materials experience degradation relatively swiftly.

织物和毛皮这样的有机材料是考古点相对稀有的发现。这是因为,除非它们远离引起腐烂的微生物,它们往往无法持续存在太久。在几千年里保持人工制品相对新鲜的一种可靠方式是极端寒冷。但一旦融化,这些材料就会迅速分解。

With climate change shrinking ice cover around the world, glacial archaeologists need to race the clock to find newly revealed artefacts, preserve them, and study them. If something fragile dries and is windblown it might very soon be lost to science, or an arrow might be exposed and then covered again by the next snow and remain well-preserved. The unpredictability means that glacial archaeologists have to be systematic in their approach to fieldwork.

随着气候变暖让世界各地的冰层都有所缩减,冰川考古学家需要与时间竞赛来寻找刚刚显露出来的人工制品,保存它们,并研究它们。如果一些脆弱的物品变得干燥并被风吹,它们很快就会失去科学上的意义,或者一枚箭头可能暴露出来,然后又被下一场风雪掩埋起来,从而得以良好地保存。这一不可预测性意味着冰川考古学家在现场发掘中必须拥有系统性的方法才行。

C部分

Over a nine-year period, a team of archaeologists, which included Lars Pilø of Oppland County Council, Norway, and James Barrett of the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, surveyed patches of ice in Oppland, an area of south-central Norway that is home to some of the country’s highest mountains. Reindeer once congregated on these icy patches in the later summer months to escape biting insects, and from the late Stone Age, hunters followed. In addition, trade routes threaded through the mountain passes of Oppland, linking settlements in Norway to the rest of Europe.

在九年的时间里,挪威奥普兰郡议会的Lars Pilø和麦当劳考古研究院的James Barrett一起研究了奥普兰的冰层。奥普兰位于挪威中南部,那里有着一些该国最高的山峰。驯鹿曾经在夏末聚集在这些冰面上,以躲避昆虫叮咬。从石器时代晚期开始,猎人也跟着过来。此外,贸易路线穿过奥普兰山口,将挪威的居民区与欧洲其他地方联系起来。

The slow but steady movement of glaciers tends to destroy anything at their bases, so the team focused on stationary patches of ice, mostly above 1,400 metres. That ice is found amid fields of frost-weathered boulders, fallen rocks, and exposed bedrock that for nine months of the year is buried beneath snow.

冰川缓慢而稳定的移动会摧毁它们底部的任何东西,因此该团队主要关注静止不动的冰层。它们大多数都位于海拔1400米以上。那里霜冻气候的巨石、滚落的石头、以及岩石底座一年之中有九个月都埋在雪里。

‘Fieldwork is hard work – hiking with all our equipment, often camping on permafrost – but very rewarding. You’re rescuing the archaeology, bringing the melting ice to wider attention, discovering a unique environmental history and really connecting with the natural environment,’ says Barrett.

“实地考察很辛苦 – 带着所有设备行走,经常在冻土上露营 – 但回报十分丰厚。你正在拯救考古学,将融化的冰面带到更多人面前,发现独特的环境历史,并与自然环境真正相连”,Barrett说。

D部分

At the edges of the contracting ice patches, archaeologists found more than 2.000 artefacts, which formed a material record that ran from 4.000 BCE to the beginnings of the Renaissance in the 14th century. Many of the artefacts are associated with hunting. Hunters would have easily misplaced arrows and they often discarded broken bows rather than take them all the way home. Other items could have been used by hunters traversing the high mountain passes of Oppland: all-purpose items like tools, skis, and horse tack.

在缩小的冰面边缘,考古学家发现了2000多个人工制品,构成从公元前四千年一直到十四世纪文艺复兴初期的物质记录。许多人工制品与捕猎相关。猎人很容易射丢箭头。他们文章来自老烤鸭雅思也经常将损坏的弓直接丢弃而非一路带回家。其他物品被猎人用来穿越奥普兰高耸的山口:比如工具、滑雪板、和马鞍这样的通用物品。

E部分

Barrett’s team radiocarbon-dated 153 of the artefacts and compared those dates to the timing of major environmental changes in the region – such as periods of cooling or warming – and major social and economic shifts – such as the growth of farming settlements and the spread of international trade networks leading up to the Viking Age. This article is from Laokaoya website. They found that some periods had produced lots of artefacts, which indicates that people had been pretty active in the mountains during those times. But there were few or no signs of activity during other periods.

Barrett的团队利用放射性碳元素测定了153件人工制品,并将它们的日期与该地区主要环境变化(如气候变冷或者变暖)和社会与经济转变(如农业居住地的增长和维京时代国际贸易网络的扩散)的时间进行了对比。他们发现一些时期产生了大量的人工制品。这表明在那些时间段里,人们在山区中尤其活跃。但其他时间里就很少有或者完全没有活动的迹象。

F部分

What was surprising, according to Barrett, was the timing of these periods. Oppland’s mountains present daunting terrain and in periods of extreme cold, glaciers could block the higher mountain passes and make travel in the upper reaches of the mountains extremely difficult. Archaeologists assumed people would stick to lower elevations during a time like the Late Antique Little Ice Age, a short period of deeper-than-usual cold from about 536-600 CE. But it turned out that hunters kept regularly venturing into the mountains even when the climate turned cold, based on the amount of stuff they had apparently dropped there.

据Barrett所说,让人吃惊的是这些时期的时间。奥普兰的山峰是令人生畏的领域。在极度寒冷的时期,冰川遮挡住较高地方的山口,让山峰上部的旅途变得极为困难。考古学家认为人们会在诸如小冰河时代晚期(公元536年到公元600年比往常更冷的一小段时间)这样的时间里选择较低的山峰。但猎人遗弃的物品数量证明即便是在气候变冷期间,他们也经常进入山区。

‘Remarkably, though, the finds from the ice may have continued through this period, perhaps suggesting that the importance of mountain hunting increased to supplement failing agricultural harvests in times of low temperatures,’ says Barrett. A colder turn in the Scandinavian climate would likely have meant widespread crop failures, so more people would have depended on hunting to make up for those losses.

“然而,出乎意料的是,冰层中的发现一直延续到这一时期 。这或许表明山区捕猎的重要性在低温时期有所上升,以弥补农业收获的下降”,Barrett说。斯堪的纳维亚气候转冷可能意味着大面积的粮食歉收,所以更多的人依靠打猎来弥补这些损失。

G部分

Many of the artefacts Barrett’s team recovered date from the beginning of the Viking Age, the 700s through to the 900s CE. Trade networks connecting Scandinavia with Europe and the Middle East were expanding around this time. Although we usually think of ships when we think of Scandinavian expansion, these recent discoveries show that plenty of goods travelled on overland routes, like the mountain passes of Oppland. And growing Norwegian towns, along with export markets, would have created a booming demand for hides to fight off the cold, as well as antlers to make useful things like combs. Business must have been good for hunters.

Barrett团队发现的许多物品都可以追溯到维京时代早期,即公元700年到公元900年左右。连接斯堪的纳维亚与欧洲和中东的贸易网络在这一时期有所扩大。虽然我们在想到斯堪的纳维亚人的扩张时总能想起船只,但这些最近的发现表明大量的物品是经由路上路线(如奥普兰的山口)运输过来的。正在发展的挪威城镇和出口市场对毛皮产生大量的需求以抵御寒冷,同时他们也需要鹿角以制作诸如梳子这样有用的东西。猎人的生意一定很好。

H部分

Norway’s mountains are probably still hiding a lot of history – and prehistory – in remote ice patches. When Barrett’s team looked at the dates for their sample of 153 artefacts they noticed a gap with almost no artefacts from about 3,800 to 2,200 BCE. In fact, archaeological finds from that period are rare all over Norway. The researchers say that could be because many of those artefacts have already disintegrated or are still frozen in the ice. That means archaeologists could be extracting some of those artefacts from retreating ice in years to come.

挪威山峰中偏僻的冰层可能还藏着许多历史和史前史。当Barret的团队研究这153个样本时,他们注意到公元前3800年到公元前2200年之间存在一段空白,这期间几乎没有任何人工制品。事实上,那个时间段的考古发现在挪威全境都十分稀少。研究者认为,这可能是因为许多这个时间的人工制品已经分解或者仍然冻在冰层中。这意味着未来考古学家能够从退去的冰层中发掘出一些这个时间段的人工制品。

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